Saturday, October 9, 2010


A carbon atom bonded to four other atoms is not clear using an atomic orbitas 2s and three 2p atomic orbitals because it would lead to the formation of three bonds with the orientation direction perpendicular to each other and a bond that has no direction of orientation. Yet in reality as example in methane, four CH bonds are identical and symmetrical unknown (tetrahedral) with orientation angle 109o 28 'to one another. This fact can be as the basis for the rearrangement of the atomic 2s and 2p orbitals so as to produce four new orbitals are identical are capable of forming a stronger bond. Orbitalorbital This new hybrid known as orbitas sp3 atoms, and the process formation is called hybridization.
 fig. 2s with a 2p orbital hybridization

It should be emphasized here that hybridization is a thought and calculation mathematical, not physical reality. Similarly, re-arrangement should be considered if a carbon atom binds to three other atoms. As an example of ethene (ethylene), three atomic orbitals sp2 hybrids are in one area and has a 120o angle orientation (hybridization trigonal flat). The latter is when a carbon atom bonded with two other Aton as in etuna (acetylene). Two atomic sp hybrid orbitals located on 180o orientation to each other (hybridization digonal).

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